Facilitating the transfer and diffusion of clean technology: opportunities on wastewater treatment in South East Asia

Section 2: Indonesia Country Report: Wastewater Management in Indonesia—Opportunities and Challenges, pp. 7-33

By Fitrian Ardiansyah and Rudy Abdul Rahman, published by UN WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), WIPO Green -The market place for sustainable technology, 2016, World Intellectual Property Organization 34, chemin des Colombettes, P.O. Box 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. For the complete pdf version of the magazine (2.72MB), please click: wipo_ip_mnl_15_report or http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/wipo_ip_mnl_15/wipo_ip_mnl_15_report.pdf

WIPO Green

Summary of Section 2:

This project report aims to identify and assess the technologies needed to improve wastewater treatment in Indonesia.

The objective is to identify and assess at least 15 wastewater treatment technology needs and technology seekers from Indonesia. The report also briefly reviews the legal frameworks that govern Indonesia’s wastewater treatment, its technologies and relevant intellectual property issues.

Indonesia has three types of regulations governing wastewater treatment. The first type is
environmental-related regulations.

The key aspect of these regulations is that technologies developed or introduced are required to maintain wastewater discharge below the allowable threshold. The second is technology-related regulation.

The key point of these regulations is that technologies are required to meet Indonesian National Standards (SNI). The last type of regulation covers technology transfer and intellectual property rights. Technologies developed or introduced in Indonesia are required to follow the Indonesia’s laws on technology transfer and intellectual property.

15 technology seekers were interviewed for the preparation of the report. The list is comprehensive, consisting of organizations and companies working in palm oil, rubber, pulp and paper and other relevant sectors, and in urban areas.

The coverage of technology seekers is diverse, incorporating three major islands of Indonesia, Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan.

The interviews revealed five important points.

Technological needs. Many technology seekers need innovative technologies that can both help address their wastewater issues and provide useful outputs or by-products.

Wastewater technology seekers, on the other hand, require support in almost all technical fields, including design aspects, alternative energy production, energy conservation and waste management.

Sustainability. Almost all seekers need technological solutions immediately, but the solutions need to be usable over the long-term.

Geographical spread. Although the technology might be used only in seekers’ areas, it is also needed in other parts of the country. Thus, if a new or adjusted technology is successful, similar companies and organizations in Indonesia might adopt the technology.

Intellectual property rights. Many seekers need help in buying products and technologies. They require other technology transfer support, including project development, technical assistance (training on intellectual property rights, patenting, licensing and negotiation) and consultancy.

Capacity, infrastructure and financing. Some seekers have knowledge and experience in wastewater management; others do not. Many seekers are connected to transport infrastructure, but only a few have access to a reliable supply of electricity. Some organizations require financial support.

In emerging economies, accelerated development in the industrial, mining and agricultural sectors and in urban areas has led to serious water pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater from these industries and households.

In Indonesia, pollution is reducing the amount of available clean water by 15-35% per capita annually (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm).

In Indonesia, several factors contribute to the degradation of water quality, such as domestic solid waste and wastewater, and wastewater from small and large-scale agricultural, textile, pulp and paper, petrochemical, mining, and oil and gas activities.

With regard to household or domestic waste and wastewater treatments, only 42.8% of more than 51 million households have such treatments and 56.15% dispose of their domestic waste and wastewater directly into natural watercourses (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm). As a result of this pollution, the water from six major rivers in West Java is unsafe to drink.

Water bodies located near mining areas are contaminated by heavy metals such as mercury (Hg). The Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA) found that of 16 sampling points near mining areas show a significant level of mercury (Hg) concentration, with the highest level of dissolved mercury in one mining area reaching 2.78 Hg/l (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm).

In the agricultural sector, the expansion of oil palm plantations and the palm oil industry have resulted in a significant increase in wastewater. Palm oil processing is water-intensive (http://www.esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp/h/isets07/Contents/Session05/1003Hayashi.pdf), and if wastewater is not treated, it contributes to the worsening levels of water pollution. Water pollution affects humans, other species and the overall built environment and already fragile natural ecosystems. It can impact fisheries, agricultural production and many other economic activities. Fortunately, technology has the potential to mitigate this problem.

There is a need, however, to understand what is considered appropriate, affordable and optimal wastewater treatment technology. Users of such technology, such as municipal governments, palm oil companies, mining companies, hotel managers, and affected stakeholders need to be interviewed to understand exactly what they need to help them improve wastewater treatment. An analysis of these needs is imperative because wastewater treatment technologies cannot be directly transferred installed and used if they are found unsuitable for the Indonesian context.

It is believed that WIPO GREEN can provide a useful platform to accelerate the innovation and diffusion of wastewater treatment technologies. This report acts as a needs assessment for wastewater technologies in Indonesia and will be of use not only to technology users, but also to wider communities in the country.

The assessment outlines specific relevant wastewater treatment technologies and potential technology users, mainly from a technical standpoint. The assessment also includes a brief review of the legal framework governing wastewater treatment, its technology and related intellectual property issues. Such a review is crucial to determine whether a particular wastewater treatment technology can be developed or introduced in Indonesia.

The report also attempts to delineate some economic and financing components of the technology so that it can give a clearer idea of whether a particular technology is feasible and affordable for technology users in Indonesia.

For the complete pdf see: wipo_ip_mnl_15_report or http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/wipo_ip_mnl_15/wipo_ip_mnl_15_report.pdf

Forest and land-use governance in a decentralized Indonesia: A legal and policy review

By Fitrian Ardiansyah, Andri Akbar Marthen and Nur Amalia, published by Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2015. Please quote as:

Ardiansyah F, Marthen AA and Amalia N. 2015. Forest and land-use governance in a decentralized Indonesia: A legal and policy review. Occasional Paper 132. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

for the pdf version (988kb), please see: OP-132_Ardiansyah et al_2015

Cover

Synopsis:

This report is a legal and policy review of the powers of key government agencies and lower-level governments and the relations among these different agencies at different levels (e.g. the relationship between the local and central governments) in forest and related sectors. The focus of this review is to identify a particular government agency or level of government that has the legal power to make resource decisions in different spheres related to forests, land use affecting forests and/or benefit sharing, including REDD+. It aims to provide an understanding of the legal basis for the powers of such agencies or a level of government. The review also examines different key actors in each sphere (including whether these agencies can make certain decisions according to the laws and regulations), the differences among agencies, and the scope of authority of lower-level governments.

The review in this report contains an introduction and four main sections. The first (Section 2) describes the division of responsibilities and power across the different levels of government. It provides a general overview of powers (e.g. the extent to which they are permitted to legislate or make decisions) and responsibilities as established by decentralization laws and policy, budget distribution as established by law, and other relevant aspects. This section addresses issues related to the overview of different levels of government in Indonesia, including the evolution and process of decentralization; the definition, scale and scope of regional autonomy/decentralization powers; the powers shared among agencies at different levels; and other relevant aspects.

The second section (Section 3) is on financial resource mechanisms and distribution. It serves as a background for the on-the-ground study of benefit-sharing mechanisms (e.g. actual and potential with regard to REDD+). This section seeks to address issues related to the arrangement of financial resources and the powers and responsibilities over them assigned and distributed among the different levels of government. Such responsibilities include forest fees and other royalties, as well as any existing benefit or incentive schemes (e.g. payment for ecosystem services, or PES) aimed at maintaining forests or promoting sustainable forest management or REDD+.

Section 4 describes the role that different levels of government play by law in the following list of land-use decision or policy arenas affecting forests: (1) spatial and land use planning, (2) defining the vocation of the land and conversion rights, (3) the titling of agricultural land, (4) the titling of indigenous land within forest areas, (5) the governments’ ownership and administration of the land, (6) natural protected areas, (7) mining concessions, (8) forest concessions, (9) oil palm, and (10) infrastructure. This section uses summary tables as far as possible, describing the division of responsibilities among the different levels of government, including in the making of formal decisions, which procedures are used, and the division and balance of powers across functions (i.e. in establishing policy and norms, authorizing, administering, controlling and monitoring, and auditing).

The last section (Section 5) further explains the role and opportunities for indigenous (adat) law. This includes a review of the definition of adat law and the legal basis for communities making land claims based on such law. This section discusses challenges and opportunities for adat law to be further recognized in the Indonesian legal system.

Original link: http://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-132.pdf

Geopolitical Map of REDD+ negotiation: An analytical report

UNREDD Geopolitical mapThis report is prepared by Pelangi Indonesia, commissioned by the UN-REDD Indonesia Programme. The writing team consists of Fitrian Ardiansyah, Melati, Boyke Lakaseru, Reza Anggara and Yasmi Adriansyah. This report presents an analysis to stimulate discussion on the geopolitical situation of REDD+ negotiation at the global level, prior to the COP (Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC)-18 in Doha, Qatar. The views expressed are entirely of Pelangi Indonesia and the writing team’s own and not that of the UN-REDD Indonesia Programme or the Government of the Republic of Indonesia.

This report was submitted to the UN-REDD Indonesia Programme in October 2012.

For the full report, please click here GEOPOLITICAL MAP OF REDD+ NEGOTIATION: An analytical report

Igniting the Ring of Fire: a Vision for Developing Indonesia’s Geothermal Power

Early July 2012, Published by WWF-Indonesia, Author: Fitrian Ardiansyah and Ali Ahsat.

WWF-Indonesia released a report, co-authored by Fitrian Ardiansyah and Ali Ashat, entitled “Igniting the Ring of Fire: A Vision for Developing Indonesia’s Geothermal Potential” – an essay that elaborates the challenges and opportunities involved in the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia, as well as gives a picture on their possible workarounds.

For the pdf file of the complete report: please read geothermal_report or alternatively click http://awsassets.wwf.or.id/downloads/geothermal_report.pdf

This report discusses economic, social, policy, financial and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development in Indonesia, including balancing geothermal energy development and forest protection, and setting the price right for geothermal investment.

 

 

The roller-coaster of Indonesia’s leadership in climate negotiations

Published in the Special Report of the IA Forum (Winter 2009/10 edition), an International Affairs Forum Special Report, pp. 45-48. 

This article examines the role and contribution of Indonesia in the global climate change negotiation forums. To read this article, please clickInternational Affairs Forum Special Report- Winter 2009-20101.

The IA Forum Special Report Winter 2009/10, in addition to my article, also published other including those written by Dr Mohamed Waheed (Vice President of Maldives), Prof Herman E. Daly (Professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park) and Prof Arvind Panagariya (Professor of Economics & Jagdish Bhagwati Professor of Indian Political Economy at Columbia University and a Non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution).