Facilitating the transfer and diffusion of clean technology: opportunities on wastewater treatment in South East Asia

Section 2: Indonesia Country Report: Wastewater Management in Indonesia—Opportunities and Challenges, pp. 7-33

By Fitrian Ardiansyah and Rudy Abdul Rahman, published by UN WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), WIPO Green -The market place for sustainable technology, 2016, World Intellectual Property Organization 34, chemin des Colombettes, P.O. Box 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. For the complete pdf version of the magazine (2.72MB), please click: wipo_ip_mnl_15_report or http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/wipo_ip_mnl_15/wipo_ip_mnl_15_report.pdf

WIPO Green

Summary of Section 2:

This project report aims to identify and assess the technologies needed to improve wastewater treatment in Indonesia.

The objective is to identify and assess at least 15 wastewater treatment technology needs and technology seekers from Indonesia. The report also briefly reviews the legal frameworks that govern Indonesia’s wastewater treatment, its technologies and relevant intellectual property issues.

Indonesia has three types of regulations governing wastewater treatment. The first type is
environmental-related regulations.

The key aspect of these regulations is that technologies developed or introduced are required to maintain wastewater discharge below the allowable threshold. The second is technology-related regulation.

The key point of these regulations is that technologies are required to meet Indonesian National Standards (SNI). The last type of regulation covers technology transfer and intellectual property rights. Technologies developed or introduced in Indonesia are required to follow the Indonesia’s laws on technology transfer and intellectual property.

15 technology seekers were interviewed for the preparation of the report. The list is comprehensive, consisting of organizations and companies working in palm oil, rubber, pulp and paper and other relevant sectors, and in urban areas.

The coverage of technology seekers is diverse, incorporating three major islands of Indonesia, Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan.

The interviews revealed five important points.

Technological needs. Many technology seekers need innovative technologies that can both help address their wastewater issues and provide useful outputs or by-products.

Wastewater technology seekers, on the other hand, require support in almost all technical fields, including design aspects, alternative energy production, energy conservation and waste management.

Sustainability. Almost all seekers need technological solutions immediately, but the solutions need to be usable over the long-term.

Geographical spread. Although the technology might be used only in seekers’ areas, it is also needed in other parts of the country. Thus, if a new or adjusted technology is successful, similar companies and organizations in Indonesia might adopt the technology.

Intellectual property rights. Many seekers need help in buying products and technologies. They require other technology transfer support, including project development, technical assistance (training on intellectual property rights, patenting, licensing and negotiation) and consultancy.

Capacity, infrastructure and financing. Some seekers have knowledge and experience in wastewater management; others do not. Many seekers are connected to transport infrastructure, but only a few have access to a reliable supply of electricity. Some organizations require financial support.

In emerging economies, accelerated development in the industrial, mining and agricultural sectors and in urban areas has led to serious water pollution caused by the discharge of untreated wastewater from these industries and households.

In Indonesia, pollution is reducing the amount of available clean water by 15-35% per capita annually (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm).

In Indonesia, several factors contribute to the degradation of water quality, such as domestic solid waste and wastewater, and wastewater from small and large-scale agricultural, textile, pulp and paper, petrochemical, mining, and oil and gas activities.

With regard to household or domestic waste and wastewater treatments, only 42.8% of more than 51 million households have such treatments and 56.15% dispose of their domestic waste and wastewater directly into natural watercourses (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm). As a result of this pollution, the water from six major rivers in West Java is unsafe to drink.

Water bodies located near mining areas are contaminated by heavy metals such as mercury (Hg). The Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA) found that of 16 sampling points near mining areas show a significant level of mercury (Hg) concentration, with the highest level of dissolved mercury in one mining area reaching 2.78 Hg/l (http://www.wepa-db.net/policies/state/indonesia/indonesia.htm).

In the agricultural sector, the expansion of oil palm plantations and the palm oil industry have resulted in a significant increase in wastewater. Palm oil processing is water-intensive (http://www.esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp/h/isets07/Contents/Session05/1003Hayashi.pdf), and if wastewater is not treated, it contributes to the worsening levels of water pollution. Water pollution affects humans, other species and the overall built environment and already fragile natural ecosystems. It can impact fisheries, agricultural production and many other economic activities. Fortunately, technology has the potential to mitigate this problem.

There is a need, however, to understand what is considered appropriate, affordable and optimal wastewater treatment technology. Users of such technology, such as municipal governments, palm oil companies, mining companies, hotel managers, and affected stakeholders need to be interviewed to understand exactly what they need to help them improve wastewater treatment. An analysis of these needs is imperative because wastewater treatment technologies cannot be directly transferred installed and used if they are found unsuitable for the Indonesian context.

It is believed that WIPO GREEN can provide a useful platform to accelerate the innovation and diffusion of wastewater treatment technologies. This report acts as a needs assessment for wastewater technologies in Indonesia and will be of use not only to technology users, but also to wider communities in the country.

The assessment outlines specific relevant wastewater treatment technologies and potential technology users, mainly from a technical standpoint. The assessment also includes a brief review of the legal framework governing wastewater treatment, its technology and related intellectual property issues. Such a review is crucial to determine whether a particular wastewater treatment technology can be developed or introduced in Indonesia.

The report also attempts to delineate some economic and financing components of the technology so that it can give a clearer idea of whether a particular technology is feasible and affordable for technology users in Indonesia.

For the complete pdf see: wipo_ip_mnl_15_report or http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/mdocs/en/wipo_ip_mnl_15/wipo_ip_mnl_15_report.pdf

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The challenges of environmental governance in a democratic and decentralized Indonesia

Authors: Fitrian Ardiansyah, Melati and Astari Anjani.

A book chapter (Chapter 6) in S Mukherjee & D Chakraborty (eds), Environmental Challenges and Governance: Diverse Perspective from Asia, Routledge (2015), Oxon.

Cover book

Please check this link to access the book and chapter:

https://www.routledge.com/products/9780415721905

Or see the pre-published version of this chapter:

6296-0018-006_FArdiansyah_Preproofread

Introduction:

Since the last decade, Indonesia appears to have increasingly put serious efforts into advancing its commitments in environmental protection and climate change mitigation. The Government of Indonesia (GoIn) led by its president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, for instance, made a famous pledge at the G-20 meeting on 25 September 2009, stating that his government was devising a policy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26 per cent by 2020 from business as usual (BAU) levels, and up to 41 per cent with international support (Melisa 2010). During his co-chairmanship for the United Nations High Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, the Indonesian president re-affirmed the importance of environmental protection along with economic development and poverty alleviation (President of Indonesia 2012b).

To achieve its commitment for environmental protection and climate change mitigation, the GoIn has combined various approaches including by issuing domestic policies and programs, and providing economic incentives as well as reforming existing institutions and establishing new ones. A number of regulations and policies were issued by the GoIn on this front and the GoIn set up new agencies, in addition to existing ministries, to help deal with environmental issues. The GoIn has also attempted to provide economic incentives for environmental protection and climate change mitigation (Dhewanthi 2012).

Environmental degradation as elaborated in the following section, however, has continued to affect and threaten all aspects of Indonesian development and people’s lives. The forest and land fires during 2013 and their associated haze, which affected neighboring countries, is a good example of how an environmental disaster not only has disturbed the local economy and health conditions of local people but also can transform the relations of neighboring countries in Southeast Asia into one of the worst in the history of the region (Ardiansyah 2013).

The GoIn’s commitments to protect the country’s environment are ambitious, and to achieve the desired outcomes, it will need all support it can get. Indonesia’s political and governance system, however, is not homogenous. While some government agencies may be willing to collaborate, others such as local governments need to feel the ownership of such ‘ideal call’ and see concrete benefits to get involved. Since decentralization took place in the early millennium, significant powers now rest with the district and municipal governments, including in managing natural resources and the environment. This chapter, therefore, explores key challenges in realizing the country’s environmental management commitments in the current governance context. Prior to discussing regulations and institutions established to address environmental challenges in Indonesia, the following section briefly touches on the country’s state of environment and current challenges that Indonesia has to face. The third section provides an analysis of regulations and policies on the environment and other relevant regulations and policies. This section also examines the interconnection of these different regulations. Section four analyzes roles of different government actors or institutions, and non-state actors, namely civil society groups and the private sector when it comes to environmental management of the country. This section discusses the complexity, challenges and opportunities for these different actors and institutions to collaborate in managing the environment and natural resources in the country. This section also emphasizes the importance of the current decentralized governmental system and the challenges resulting from this system for the country’s environmental management. With an increase in the level of authority of sub-national governments, formulating policies, designing programs and coordinating programmatic implementation of environmental management across more than 400 districts in Indonesia are Herculean tasks for the GoIn. The chapter concludes with remarks that may help further reform in Indonesia’s environmental governance.

Keywords: Indonesia, decentralization, environmental governance, forest and land use governance, legal framework.

Chapter

Decentralization and avoiding deforestation: the case of Indonesia

“Decentralization and avoiding deforestation: the case of Indonesia”. Authors: Fitrian Ardiansyah and Frank Jotzo.

A book chapter (Chapter 9) in S. Howes & MG Rao (eds), Federal Reform Strategies: Lessons from Asia and Australia, Oxford University Press (2013), Oxford.

Please check this link to access the chapter:

http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198092001.001.0001/acprof-9780198092001-chapter-9 

Or see the pre-published version of this chapter:

Indonesia-decentralisation-deforestation_FitrianArdiansyah_FrankJotzo_proofedition_2013

Abstract:

Indonesia has undergone far-reaching political, administrative and fiscal decentralization over the last decade. Significant powers now rest with the district level including the management of natural resources and the environment. A large share of state revenue goes to district governments. Deforestation has been a part and parcel of Indonesia’s economic development and it is the principal source of Indonesia’s large greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesia has committed to curb its greenhouse gas emissions, mostly through reduced deforestation. We assess challenges and options for avoiding deforestation under the decentralized system, using Indonesia’s fiscal transfer system. We find that schemes for improving land management and deforestation need to be structured around the interests of local governments and actors. Positive incentives for local governments will need to be created to compensate them for foregone profits and to facilitate alternative development. This could be done through intergovernmental transfers, using either outcome-based or input-based payment schemes.

Keywords: Indonesia, decentralization, avoiding deforestation, REDD+ programme, forest and land use governance, intergovernmental fiscal transfers

Federal Reform Strategies$

The dynamics of climate change governance in Indonesia

“The dynamics of climate change governance in Indonesia”. Authors: Prof Budy P. ResosudarmoFitrian Ardiansyah and Lucentezza Napitupulu.

A book chapter (Chapter 4) in D. Held, C. Rogers & EM Nag (eds), Climate Governance in the Developing World, Polity (2013), Cambridge.

Please check the pre-published/proof-read edition here Chapter 4. Indonesia_resosudarmo_ardiansyah_napitupulu or if you want to access the chapter and/or the book: http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745662763

9780745662770frcvr.indd

Info:

This chapter is an attempt to explain why the Indonesian president made a major climate change commitment, although the issue of mitigation had not been widely discussed domestically. The chapter also offers an explanation as to why the implementation of this commitment has been relatively slow so far. Understanding the forces behind Indonesia’s climate change commitment and the complexity of its implementation constitutes an important first step on the path towards resolving the challenges that have hindered progress.

Keywords:  Climate change governance – Indonesia – Climate change mitigation and adaptation – Climate change policy

Chapter4_ClimateGovernance

Reviews:

“This valuable book once and for all dispels the myth that developing countries are unwilling to take action to confront climate change. By disentangling the complex motivations and incentives facing policy-makers, and the obstacles they face, this is important reading for all who want to understand how all countries can be encouraged to become part of the solution to climate change.” Andrew Steer, World Resources Institute

“This is a book of considerable value not only to governments and other stakeholders in the developing world, but to others across the globe as well. The principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibility’ really needs considerable analysis and interpretation for application in different parts of the world. This book very ably reviews global developments and developing country initiatives to highlight the choices, opportunities and challenges facing the developing world in the field of climate governance. Given the very readable material presented in these pages, I would recommend this piece of literature to anyone interested in climate issues across the globe.” Rajendra K. Pachauri, Yale University

The large developing countries are essential to the global effort on climate change. This book by people with deep expertise in each country tells us with authority what they are doing and how. High quality work on an important subject.” Ross Garnaut, University of Melbourne

———————————-Table of Contents of the BookList of Contributors
Preface
Abbreviations1. Editors’ Introduction: Climate Governance in the Developing World
David Held, Charles Roger and Eva-Maria NagPart I. Asia2. A Green Revolution: China’s Governance of Energy and Climate Change
David Held, Charles Roger and Eva-Maria Nag
3. The Evolution of Climate Policy in India: Poverty and Global Ambition in Tension
Aaron Atteridge
4. The Dynamics of Climate Governance in Indonesia
Budy P. Resosudarmo, Fitrian Ardiansyah and Lucentezza Napitupulu
5. Low-Carbon Green Growth and South Korea’s Governance of Climate Change
Jae-Seung Lee

Part II. Americas

6. Discounting the Future: The Politics of Climate Change in Argentina
Matías Franchini and Eduardo Viola
7. Controlling the Amazon: Brazil’s Evolving Response to Climate Change
David Held, Charles Roger and Eva-Maria Nag
8. Making “Peace with Nature”: Costa Rica’s Campaign for Climate Neutrality
Robert Fletcher
9. A Climate Leader? The Politics and Practice of Climate Governance in Mexico
Simone Pulver

Part III. Africa

10. Resources and Revenues: The Political Economy of Climate Initiatives in Egypt
Jeannie Sowers
11. Ethiopia’s Path to a Climate-Resilient Green Economy
David Held, Charles Roger and Eva-Maria Nag
12. Reducing Climate Change Vulnerability in Mozambique: From Policy to Practice
Angus Hervey and Jessica Blythe
13. Reaching the Crossroads: The Development of Climate Governance in South Africa
Lesley Masters

—————————————-
Book Authors Information:

David Held is Master of University College and Professor of Politics and International Relations at Durham University.

Charles Roger is a PhD student at the University of British Columbia and Liu Scholar at the Liu Institute for Global Issues.

Eva-Maria Nag is the Executive Editor of Global Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Risk, Resilience and Human Security in Cross-Border Areas: the Greater Mekong Subregion, the Heart of Borneo and the Coral Triangle

“Risk, Resilience and Human Security in Cross-Border Areas: the Greater Mekong Subregion, the Heart of Borneo and the Coral Triangle” (in the beginning of 2011 the old version of this was published as a working paper by Centre for Non-Traditional Security of S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore). Authors: Fitrian Ardiansyah and Desak Putu Adhityani Putri.

Published as a book chapter (Chapter 8) in an edited book entitled “Human Security and Climate Change in Southeast Asia”. The editors are Prof Lorraine Elliott and Prof Mely Caballero-Anthony. The book is published by Routledge and the offer to buy this book has been put on Amazon.com, Routledge.com and a number of online bookshops.

Human Security and Climate Change in Southeast Asia

Edited by Lorraine Elliott, Mely Caballero-Anthony

Published August 2012 by Routledge – 240 pages

Series: Routledge Security in Asia Pacific Series

Part 1: Setting the context 1. Human security, climate change and social resilience Lorraine Elliott 2. The economics of climate change in Southeast Asia Juzhong Zhuang, Suphachol Suphachalasai and Jindra Nuella Samson Part 2: Conceptual approaches 3. A sociology of risk, vulnerability and resilience Devanathan Parthasarathy 4. Community rights and accessKeokam Kraisoraphong Part 3: Local risk and strategies for local resilience 5. REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation): mitigation, adaptation and the resilience of local livelihoods Enrique Ibarra Gené 6. The challenges for gender-responsive adaptation strategies Bernadette P Resurreccion Part 4: Scaling up to the region 7. Development for climate security Irene Kuntjoro 8. Risk, Resilience and Human Security in Cross-Border Areas: the Greater Mekong Subregion, the Heart of Borneo and the Coral Triangle Fitrian Ardiansyah and Desak Putu Adhityani Putri 9. Regional cooperation: enabling environments for adaptation and social resilience Mely Caballero-Anthony

Original links:

http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415684897/#contents

Abstract of my chapter (Chapter 8):

This chapter investigates the security impacts of climate change in three Southeast Asian cross-border areas– the Greater Mekong Subregion, the Heart of Borneo and the Coral Triangle – through an examination of the ways in which climate change results in human insecurity and possibly social unrest, tension and conflict. The three cross-border areas are significant in that they host unique but threatened large-scale freshwater, terrestrial forest, coastal and marine ecosystems. In addition, they are home to more than 400 million people and provide important ecosystem goods and services to many countries in the region. This paper explores and evaluates regional agreements and actions in each of the three areas, with an emphasis on the mainstreaming of climate adaptation as well as mitigation in the development agenda. The analysis also points to the importance of reaching out to other actors beyond state and intergovernmental ones if adaptation and mitigation efforts were to succeed. There is a need to identify other actors, such as the business sector, local communities and the public, with the aim of getting them involved in these important issues.

Purchasing Options:

  • Hardback: 978-0-415-68489-7: $140.00

Chapter8_Risk_resilience_FA_DPAPutri

 

An Environmental Perspective on Energy Development in Indonesia

“An Environmental Perspective on Energy Development in Indonesia”. Authors: Fitrian Ardiansyah, Prof Neil Gunningham, Prof Peter Drahos.

A book chapter (Chapter 5) in M. Caballero-Anthony et al. (eds), Energy and Non-Traditional Security (NTS) in Asia, SpringerBriefs in Environment Security, Development and Peace 1.

Please check this link to access the chapter: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k34716127r953750/

or see the pre-published version of the chapter here: ESDP Vol 1 Ch 5 F Ardiansyah et al Environment Energy Indonesia

Abstract:

Indonesia faces an energy trilemma on the energy security, climate change goals and energy poverty fronts. Policies that focus exclusively on one prong of the trilemma may lead to unacceptable consequences in the others. Conceiving the predicament as a trilemma will encourage a more unified approach to its problem solving. Successful management will require a search for policy complementarities—the likeliest source of which may be the renewable energy sector—that allow the country to move forward on all three fronts. A reform of its bureaucracy to address implementation gaps in its energy policy will also be needed. The reduction in transaction costs associated with the implementation of Indonesia’s energy policy could be used as a broad criterion when considering these necessary changes.

Keywords:  Energy security – Energy poverty – Renewable energy – Biofuels – Climate change – Environmental impacts – Deforestation

Energy and NTS

 

Best Practice: major Indonesian NGOs join forces to contribute to an international standard of sustainability for palm oil plantations

By Fitrian Adiansyah and Abetnego Tarigan, in Forest partnerships: enhancing local livelihoods and protecting the environment in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 2007, edited by Maria Osbeck and Marisha Wojciechowska-Shibuya, IUCN, Bangkok, p. 23. For the pdf version of the full please click here: 2007_CaseStudy_WildHoneyBees

The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was established by businesses involved in the production, processing and retail of palm oil — key members include Malaysian and Indonesian palm oil companies and European processing and retailing companies. The RSPO was established to counter the concerns of environmental organizations that palm oil plantations were a major cause of deforestation and were being imposed on local communities without concern for their rights, livelihoods or welfare and managed with insufficient concern for the rights and welfare of plantation workers and smallholders.

The influential Indonesia NGO consortium Sawit Watch and WWF-Indonesia — both RSPO Board Members — saw the opportunity to promote and call for high social standards and environmental criteria for stakeholders in the oil palm industry. Mutually supporting each others’ experience and expertise, they developed “Sustainability Criteria”, which elaborate voluntary standards to be adopted by the industry to ensure that palm oil production is socially and environmentally acceptable.

In November 2005, the principles and criteria (P&C) for “sustainable palm oil” were adopted by the RSPO General Assembly. The standard is being tested through a two-year trial implementation phase wherein 17 large companies have voluntarily committed to participate. Combined advocacy ensured that the P&C eventually included provisions on customary rights to land; free, prior and informed consent; respect for ratified international law; workers’ rights; non-discrimination; minimized and safe use of pesticides; fair pricing for smallholder products; recognition of high conservation value areas; and other important environmental aspects.

This partnership presents a concrete example of effective synergy between social and environmental groups and represents an effort to bring the government, NGOs and the private sector to the table. The RSPO’s sustainability criteria have established a good basis for developing best practices in the industry, halting conversion of high conservation value forests, promoting zero burning, and phasing out the use of agrochemicals. Communities impacted are in agreement with this standard and preliminary field studies suggest that the draft standard will offer significant protection. Looking to the future, these measures — along with commitment from actors on the global supply chains — should prove instrumental for the advance of environmentally acceptable practices in the palm oil industry.

[Abet Nego Tarigan, Sawit Watch: “Partnership between NGOs increases our access to information and enriches our work.” 

Joanna de Rozario, NTFP-EP: “A community that increases quality, increases its profit margin for the same volume of honey.” 

Community Member “A key to ensure economic benefit and overall well-being for rain-forest communities lies in the ability to organize.”]

ANNOUNCEMENT 12 January 2007:

RSPO Code of Conduct

RSPO is pleased to announce its Code of Conduct†. This is a major document that articulates the aspirations and expectations we as RSPO Members wish to aspire to and meet. The Code of Conduct is the culmination of the collective effort of RSPO Members, expressed through the Executive Board over the past year. It not only reflects the major concerns but also defines key objectives in meeting RSPO’s goals. After deliberation, negotiation and consultation, the Code of Conduct is now ready for adoption. It would be a cornerstone for gauging members’ contributions towards RSPO, and ultimately towards the goal of promoting the production, procurement and use of sustainable palm oil. It would also form the basis for our communication to stakeholders as we report against the Code of Conduct.

For the complete Code, see Annex 3. Source: rspo.org

Original link: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/forest_partnership.pdf